Toward the realization of a reliable Internet environment
- Draft 1: 2014-2015
- Writtern By Toru Nomakuchi
The Internet, which has been in widespread use since the 1990s, has now become an important infrastructure that everyone uses as part of their daily lives. The Internet was expected to help people share information, trade, communicate, and automate simple tasks, and many of these functions have been realized, and many people around the world are now using them. Now that the simple functional aspects have run their course, I feel that the time has come to look at the whole picture and search for a better Internet. In particular, the Internet media, in contrast to the mass media, has been expected to be a tool for the realization of a society with diversity, independence, and freedom, based on the passive aspect of the mass media and the active aspect of the Internet. In this section, we will discuss what the current situation is and what the future development should be.
Looking around at the Internet information that we come into contact with on a daily basis, we find that the information on the Internet is a mixture of cobblestones, lacking in coherence, redundant, containing a lot of false information and malicious rumors, and so on. In addition, because people tend to see what they want to see, the Internet, which has the potential to broaden our horizons, accelerates the act of repeatedly looking at the same kind of information that makes us feel good, which in turn narrows our horizons. From the perspective of broadening one's horizons, there is a lack of an efficient mechanism for selecting and discarding relevant information, and this leads to a state of information bias.
Next, looking around at the places where people usually deal with online information, many places for sharing information have appeared due to the spread of SNS, wikis, BBS, etc. However, it is difficult to say that these places are more reliable than real places due to vandalism, incitement, wrong information, and malicious information. In addition, although many business solutions using cloud systems have appeared, they are based on the extremely unfavorable negotiation structure of an individual versus an organization, and there is no systematic mechanism to multiply the competitiveness and added value of each service, nor is there any way to guarantee the quality of the service or the credibility of the other party. As a result, they have little credibility as a business platform and are constantly exposed to the danger of price collapse.
Thus, a cursory examination shows that the credibility of online media is inadequate. Even when compared to traditional media such as the mass media, professional books, and one-on-one business, it can be said that the reliability of the online media as a whole, let alone individually, is far inferior. In light of these factors, it is necessary to improve the reliability of online media. To improve the reliability of online media, it is necessary to ensure that 1) there is no waste of information, 2) the information is not false, 3) the necessary information reaches the necessary people, 4) there is a reliable place to share and exchange the necessary information, and 5) It is necessary to have a reliable place to share and exchange the necessary information, and 5) to create high value-added business based on the acquired information.
Now, entropy is a measure of the determinacy of information and the amount of information. If the information is redundant or contains false information, the information becomes indeterminate or the amount of information increases, which increases entropy. On the other hand, since information that is already well known is not necessary, information that does not reach those who need it is indeterminate and increases entropy. It increases entropy. In addition, if someone misinterprets or maliciously incites a false rumor in a place where communication is involved, the false rumor will spread throughout the place, increasing the entropy of the place. Since high entropy is an extremely unreliable state, and since added value in business is highly correlated with trust, if inappropriate false or fraudulent information is mixed into the business, the entropy of the entire system will increase, and the value of the business will be greatly damaged. Thus, reducing entropy in the system leads to the reliability of the online media, which in turn leads to the elimination of information waste, the elimination of false information, the delivery of necessary information to necessary people, the creation of a reliable place to share and exchange necessary information, and the creation of high-value-added businesses based on the acquired information. This will lead to the creation of high value-added busines
The purpose of this paper is to discuss effective measures to improve the credibility of online media, based on the general guideline of reducing entropy.
A credible online media is one that
- No waste of information
- No falsehoods in the information
- Necessary information should be delivered to necessary people.
- The existence of a reliable place to share and exchange necessary information
- A high value-added business can be created based on the acquired information.
As a means of reducing entropy in reliable online media, we will consider measures from the following perspectives.
- Systematization and compression of information
- Ensuring the reliability of information
- Efficient selection of information
- Construction of a trustworthy place
- Ensuring the credibility of business transactions
Information in online media is programs and data. When we think about this systematically, we can say that the information to be managed is the composition management information of program codes and the management data group including time variant.First, let's consider the entropy reduction of program code. When we consider the aggregation and management of information from many projects, various redundancies occur between programs and between modules that compose a program. Normally, when the overlapping parts are very large, refactoring is used to extract and share the parts that can be made common. Refactoring is the process of reducing the amount of information by commonizing the shared parts between modules with equivalent functions, and thus can be said to be a process of reducing information entropy.
Factors that inhibit such commonality include differences in programming languages, frameworks, coding guidelines, interfaces, and tuning for speed and weight reduction. When these differences that inhibit commonality are defined as platform-dependent code, if a transformation can be defined that separates the platform-independent code orthogonally from the platform-dependent code, synthesizes the separated information, and returns it to the original program, commonality can be achieved beyond the scope of refactoring. If the transformation can be defined in such a way that the separated information can be synthesized and returned to the original program, it can be commonized beyond the refactoring category. MDA (Model Driven Architecture) and high-level synthesis can be mentioned as technologies that enable such synthesis, and since this technology also enables static transformation, it is an effective technology for speeding up and lightening the weight of the type of work done manually. However, this technology is also effective in speeding up and reducing the weight of programs that are done manually, since static transformation is also possible.
Normally, programs are expressed in a complex nested structure of statements and expressions because they are a language, but it is desirable to have a normalized structure to some extent when managing the differences in the composition of programs on the time axis. OOA/OOD (Object Oriented Analysis / Object Oriented Design), a well-known programming style, flattens the nested structure of the data structure. When editing processes such as adding, updating, and deleting components of a model are represented by generalizing operators, it is possible to express the editing information by function products. This makes it possible to arithmetically manage the change differences in the system, and the arithmetical mapping transformation using operators makes it easy to manage the time differences. Due to the commutativity and equivalence of the function product, a finite number of equivalent transformations can be defined, which makes it possible to compress the amount of information in the time axis direction.
Next, we will discuss time-variant traceable data groups and their information compression. When the data format or model format is changed in the time interval for tracking the time variability of data, the system is usually migrated by assigning a revision number and creating a format converter. However, if model updates are frequent and the amount of data handled is huge, including the management of this converter, the total number of combinations becomes very large and the information entropy increases. However, if the model is updated frequently and the amount of data handled is huge, the total number of combinations, including the management of this converter, will be very large, and the information entropy will increase. The management of the model and data in this program can be automated by computing the data and the operators that make up the model, as long as the difference information and synchronization information between the two are managed, and the information entropy in this data management can be reduced. In addition, the change difference of data can be expressed by the functional product of the operators as well as the model. In order to avoid redundancy between program information and data information, it is desirable that model information is not included in the data information difference management, and the method of defining simplified conversions, such as recording the memory address that was written, is effective in reducing entropy in data management.
If we assume that a mathematical expression representing an operation on a group of data is also data, then the operation performed when applying the mathematical expression to the group of data can also be considered as data. This integration of formulas and data is a characteristic of languages such as LISP, and the amount of information when such operations are also considered as data can be considered as the CPU profile of the entire server. In the CPU profile of big data analysis, the weight of operations on huge data groups is large, and minimizing this information entropy can be said to be an operation like caching and reusing vector operations on huge data sequences. In order to reduce this kind of entropy, it is effective to extract heavy operations and make them common across transactions. Since operations on extremely large data are spread across many servers, it is necessary to share a calculation cache containing mathematical expressions among servers. Also, the typical heavy operations are integrals, special functions, and operations on data sequences, and it is necessary to be able to specify such formulas when accessing the calculation cache.
It is also desirable to standardize the sharing method of data tied to time and to standardize the documentation in a generalized format, since information sharing between different programs would allow sharing of data from designs and other services. Standardization initiatives such as the Open Schedule, which is a draft standard for a group of assets tied to a time axis, and the Open Note, which is a draft normalized document standard, will help reduce entropy in this type of use case. Also, by normalizing documents in a certain way, similarity between documents can be systematically checked, making it easier to introduce entropy-reducing algorithms that optimize document retrieval according to the analogy of the person referring to the document.
In this section, we have outlined information compression of program code, time-variant traceable data sets and their information compression from the perspective of reducing entropy. We also explained the significance of Open Schedule, which is a draft standard for time-variant assets, and Open Note, which is a draft normalized document standard, in terms of reducing entropy.
This paper discusses three ways of ensuring the reliability of information: ensuring accuracy through authentication, clarifying rights and obligations, and eliminating deceptive practices and falsehoods.First, I will discuss the assurance of accuracy through authentication. Looking at the recent history of the Internet, there is a difference between using real names and not using real names, such as anonymous BBS, SNS with a mixture of anonymous and real names, and Facebook with real names, but even with real names, the accuracy of the personal information described therein is not secured very well. Even with an account like a twitter account, it only guarantees the accuracy of the account's identity, not the correctness of the profile information written in it. In the case of acquaintances in the real world, if the identity of the person can be verified, the information can be interpreted in connection with a lot of foresight information, which improves the certainty of the information, but in the case of a complete stranger, the disclosure of the real name only serves as a clue to search for related information, and the real name does not necessarily increase the certainty of the information.
For example, if a person uses his or her real name and claims to be a lawyer or an officer of some company, but it is not certain that he or she is actually a lawyer or an officer of that company, the profile information is not reliable. On the other hand, if the information that a person has a career in some profession is guaranteed to be accurate, even if he or she does not give his or her name, we know that he or she has prerequisite knowledge in that field, which saves us the trouble of confirmation and reduces entropy in communication.
There are many types of information that we want to know when engaging with strangers, not just the "is" information, but also the "isn't" type of information. For example, information such as "I am not in trouble," "I am not a member of an antisocial organization," and "I am not a terrorist. In general, it is difficult to guarantee that a person is not a terrorist, and in the real world, we often make probabilistic judgments by gathering more reliable information than we can possibly know. In addition, from the viewpoint of privacy protection, it is desirable that the visibility of information can be controlled by the individual, but if there is arbitrariness in the disclosure criteria, it may be inappropriate as a criterion for determining whether the information is trustworthy or not.
However, if there is arbitrariness in the disclosure criteria, it may be inappropriate as a criterion for determining whether the information is trustworthy or not. Considering this, it would be desirable to operate the system in such a way that when a person joins a group, he or she is required to disclose to the group a measure or personal information that can be verified as correct relatively easily and is considered effective in determining the suitability of the group's activities. We are drafting a standard called the Open Profile to ensure the accuracy of such personal information, and the Open Profile is designed to ensure the accuracy of information through public certification bodies. This will also be effective in reducing information entropy.
Next, I would like to discuss the clarification of rights. In recent years, it has been confirmed that there are cases of non-compliance with intellectual property laws, such as copyright violations such as piracy, which have become the norm in some industries. First of all, it is important to make people widely aware that it costs money to create something good, and it is also important to put a sign on paid content to show that it is paid for. In addition, it is important to create a mechanism to obtain legal evidence and detect malicious violations of intellectual property laws.
However, it is more important to embed rights information in the content, make it visible that the content is paid content, recognize that the content is paid content, and track the movement of the content than to put in technical protection. This is an effective measure in clarifying the rights relationship. In addition, it is desirable to embed information for payment in the content so that compensation can be paid for the use of the intellectual property, and even if copied content is distributed, compensation can be paid in the form of a charge for the use of the content.
Next, we will discuss the elimination of deceptive acts and falsehoods. With regard to contents claiming intellectual property rights, it is necessary to eliminate acts such as blasphemy and fraud that falsify the right holder or the right relationship, and to prevent unauthorized works from being mixed in. This is because, especially in the case of derivative works such as secondary works and tertiary works, the inclusion of unauthorized works will result in an extremely high entropy situation where the damage will spread to other works.
In order to prevent forgery and hoaxes, it is necessary to eliminate people who would commit such criminal acts by blacklisting them, to create an environment where criminal acts are unlikely to occur, to make the penalty for forgery much larger than the expected value of the incentive gained by forgery, and to make people aware that the penalty is large. There are proactive measures that can be taken. It would also be effective to create an environment in which disguises and hoaxes are immediately detected by recording the production process, correctly visualizing the rights involved, and organizing the facts so that disguises are not committed in the first place. The proactive measures for the former will be discussed later in the section on building a trustworthy place, and the latter, prevention of disguise and false rumors by recording, visualizing, and organizing information, will be explained in more detail.
As standards for visualization and clarification of rights relationships, I have written draft standards called Open Right and Open Lights. Open Lights aims to visualize and clarify the scale for calculating compensation for intellectual assets. This will also be effective in reducing entropy by preventing unauthorized copies from being distributed or mixed in with the production of secondary works.
In this section, we have explained how authentication ensures accuracy, clarifies rights relationships, and eliminates deceptive acts and falsehoods from the perspective of reducing entropy. In addition, I explained the significance of Open Profile as a draft standard to ensure the accuracy of personal information, and Open Right and Open Lights as draft standards to clarify the relationship of rights, from the perspective of reducing entropy.
I will discuss three means of efficient information selection: selection of appropriate clusters, discrimination of trolls and agitators against clusters, and selection of information based on analysis of standardized open data.
First, I will discuss the means of selecting appropriate clusters. in terms of SNS connections, the story of the "sixth degree of separation" is well known, and it is said that through six people, we can connect with people all over the world. the people who mediate the sixth degree of separation are those who have many related nodes, and those who are rich in topics. In the information space, people are information, and clusters are groups of people who share information in a certain context. If we can bridge clusters efficiently, we can obtain information in the most appropriate context in a very small number of times. If the sought-after clusters are places where low-entropy communication is possible, useful information will be obtained efficiently.
To efficiently bridge the gap between clusters means to focus on the right topics and narrow down the information needed by the other person. The M/K method is a method of selectively and statistically bifurcating and narrowing down appropriate clusters based on sentences such as highly abstract, high-context, and generalized stories that are interpreted differently depending on the listener's viewpoint, position, likes and dislikes, and differences in knowledge. It is a method to selectively and statistically branch and narrow down the appropriate clusters. Specifically, we are thinking of using a BOT equipped with a discriminating filter for discourses that do not match the context, using the M/K judgment method, to provide an appropriate bridge. This will reduce the information entropy through cluster adaptation.
Next, we will discuss the means of identifying vandalism and agitation. Earlier, I described a method of guiding people who are inappropriate for a place to an appropriate place, but guiding people who intentionally or consciously make a series of inappropriate remarks to an appropriate cluster would not be very effective. From a control-theoretic point of view, a person who makes a series of inappropriate remarks, for whom measures to suppress the inappropriate remarks are completely ineffective, and for whom the time variation regarding the rate of inappropriate remarks is divergent or the rate of inappropriate remarks is stable at a high level, could be defined as a troll. By defining M/K convergence as a metric for such trolling, we can identify trolls. Agitation is an infectious form of vandalism, in which even contextual discourse is made infectiously unpleasant by labeling it as offensive or abusive.
If we can mechanically identify the discourse that leads to such vandalism or agitation, we can first make the vandal or agitator aware of the metrics, and then provide some feedback to the person who is notified. If it is not malicious, the inappropriateness of the statement will be recognized at that point, inappropriate discourse will be curbed, and entropy will be reduced. If the inappropriate behavior continues or worsens even after this feedback is given, the M/K convergence diverges, and it can be recognized as vandalism or agitation. If we can share this information as a warning in the place and filter out those who can be judged as vandalism or agitation, entropy can be reduced. This will reduce entropy.
Next, we will discuss the selection of information based on the analysis of open data. Data similarity and directionality can be detected relatively easily by normalizing the data set in a certain format, extracting multifaceted metrics based on the token sequences that make up the data, and using vector analysis. As for inconsistencies and errors, some of them can be detected mechanically by formulating them. Such auxiliary tools may be useful in reducing entropy. There are also inconsistencies and errors that can only be detected by exposing them to many eyes, including those of experts. Being exposed to many eyes means being considered from multiple perspectives and exhaustively, and when multifaceted verification is conducted in a place where entropy is reduced, contradictions and errors will be eliminated. In other words, if we can create a field where entropy is reduced, open data will be useful for efficiently eliminating inconsistencies and errors, which in turn will enable efficient selection of information.
In this section, I have explained the significance of reducing entropy in terms of selecting appropriate clusters, identifying vandalism and agitation against clusters, and selecting information based on analysis of standardized open data. I also explained the significance of the M/K convergence method in terms of reducing entropy for discriminating between discourses that do not match the context using the M/K judgment method as a method for selecting appropriate clusters, and for discriminating between vandalism and agitation against clusters using the M/K convergence method. I explained the significance of the M/K convergence method in terms of reducing entropy.
A trustworthy place is a place where communication with appropriate parties is possible from a proactive point of view, and from a reactive point of view, it is a place where there are no deceptions or falsehoods, and where people comply with laws, regulations, and contracts.
First, let us discuss the positive perspective. If we proceed with the efficient selection of information as described in the previous section, it will be possible to construct a place where communication with appropriate parties is possible. I am drafting a concept of Open Group, a group network with configurable access rights, as a standard for such a system. This will also be effective in reducing entropy.
Next, let's discuss the negative perspective. Actions such as not following rules, spreading falsehoods, and making the place emotional, etc., increase the entropy of the place so much that such actions need to be eliminated or suppressed in order to maintain the functionality of the place. Therefore, in order to maintain the functionality of a place, it is necessary to eliminate or suppress such activities. The entropy can be reduced by making it difficult for professional criminals who are convinced of their crimes, dangerous people who commit crimes impulsively or emotionally, and instigators who increase such criminal activities to enter the place, making it difficult for them to operate, and making it easier to identify such people. Specific measures include eliminating people who habitually engage in such criminal activities by putting them on a black list, creating an environment where criminal activities are unlikely to occur, making the penalty for disguise much larger than the expected value of the incentive gained by disguise, and making people aware that the penalty is large. These are explained below.
One possible method of blacklisting and exclusion is to share metrics that are considered to be particularly dangerous factors among the K-values of M/K convergence in other clusters or in one's own cluster as eligibility for participation in the cluster, and to use this as filtering information. If appropriate filters exist, they can serve as a deterrent to behaviors that increase K-values and reduce entropy in the field.
As a way to create an environment where criminal behavior is unlikely to occur, it is possible to limit the space of emotional expression by token basis transformation, for example, by limiting the tokens that can be used in the field in advance, or by defining terms that can be used as vaccines for emotional tokens. The state where there is an abundance of emotional discourse unrelated to the main topic in a place is an extremely dangerous place where agitation can easily occur and emotional discourse can easily infect the surroundings. The definition of a token as a vaccine to suppress this will reduce the entropy of the field.
Consider making the penalty for forgery much greater than the expected value of the incentive gained by forgery. In addition, it is possible that the person who commits such a disguise may not have sufficient resources to take responsibility for the damages, so it is necessary to show a willingness to take criminal or civil action against malicious rule violations. It is necessary to show a willingness to take criminal or civil action against malicious violations of the rules. In general, the cost of crime prevention in unsafe places is very high, and to prevent such deterioration of public safety, it is necessary to make the place extremely uncomfortable for those who would commit crimes. A place that is uncomfortable for criminals is a place where the risk of fines, claims for damages, and imprisonment for crimes is high. As a measure to create such a place, contractual and rule-based penalties for forgery would work to discourage forgery and reduce entropy.
In order to make people aware that the penalty is high, it would be effective to notify or make them aware of the problem by detecting precisely the behavior or words that could satisfy the criminal or civil law requirements. In particular, in order to have sufficient deterrence against criminals who commit crimes without thinking about profit and loss, such as amusing criminals and impulsive criminals, it is necessary to make them strongly aware of the penalty for their crimes. If the feedback works in such a way that the perception of a large penalty inhibits problematic behavior, then the entropy of the field will decrease as crime is deterred in advance. On the other hand, if it is the other party whose problematic behavior is aggravated by the recognition, it will be useful for early detection of the problematic person, which will lead to entropy reduction in the sense of decreasing the risk factor. As a means of efficiently notifying, recognizing, and acknowledging penalties to those who are likely to commit crimes, we are developing a method called context-dependent vaccination. This, too, will have the effect of spontaneously deterring crime and will lead to a reduction of entropy in the field over time.
In this section, I have discussed two ways of building a trustworthy place from the perspective of reducing entropy: the proactive way of promoting efficient selection of information, and the passive way of eliminating people by blacklisting them, creating an environment where criminal activities are unlikely to occur, making the penalty for deception much larger than the expected value of the incentive gained by deception, and making people aware that the penalty is large.
Next, I would like to discuss the formation of a place where commercial transactions can proceed smoothly.
First of all, a bird's eye view of today's economy shows that information, such as brands, blueprints, designs, programs, Web sites, and documents, is linked to all economic activities, and that the weight of information in the economy is extremely large. For example, the cost of raw materials for a luxury brand is extremely small compared to the price of the branded product. Under the current circumstances where the world's population is increasing, there is an upper limit to the earth's resources and therefore an upper limit to the amount of raw materials used, and the waste of resources is expected to be curbed. On the other hand, as is the fate of capitalist society, economic growth is continuing worldwide. As a result, the amount of resources used per capita will not increase much or will be controlled, and the weight of information in the economy will continue to increase in the long run. In such an information-centered society, protection of intellectual property such as copyrights, designs, patents, and know-how will be important for the orderly development of the world economy. However, since intellectual property has the aspect of creating new value by combining intellectual properties, too much monopolistic assertion of rights may hinder the intellectual economic development. Based on this characteristic of intellectual property and with an eye on the global situation and intellectual property strategy, we are proposing a license called Coop Lights, which promotes the use of rights while asserting economic rights. It is a license designed to generate incentives for intellectual contributions, a license proposed to facilitate the creation of new economic value through the convergence of intellectual property.
Coop Lights has four important functions: 1) exchangeability of the right to use the IP, 2) visibility of the measure of intellectual contribution to the IP provided, 3) distributability of the consideration for the contribution of derivative works, and 4) distribution of the consideration and depreciation of the amount of contribution according to the accumulated intellectual contribution. Each of them will be explained below.
First, I will explain the exchangeability of the right to use intellectual property. Nowadays, as information technology advances to a high level and products and services become more complex, an extremely large amount of intellectual property is needed to produce some kind of product. Considering that each person has a finite amount of time and an upper limit to the amount of thinking that can be done, the increase in the amount of information that can be handled due to the advanced informatization means that there will be an increase in the number of situations where a complex product must be developed with more collaboration and cooperation to create a single product. In such a case, we have devised this interchangeability so that collaboration can be carried out smoothly, letting people use each other's intellectual property. One of the ways to facilitate exchange is to standardize and systematize contracts, which will greatly reduce the time and effort required to resolve rights relationships and reduce the entropy of rights relationships.
Second, I will explain the visibility of the measure of intellectual contribution to the IP provided. We visualize the intellectual contribution by quantifying the right to use the IP that we let others use with a numerical value such as points. This kind of visualization is useful as a standard for calculating the correct compensation, and will be helpful in reducing financial and rights-related troubles, thus contributing to the reduction of entropy in business relationships.
Third, I would like to explain the distributability of the consideration according to the contribution of the derivative work. This would be done by calculating a reasonable relative intellectual contribution from measurable metrics, taking into account the three elements of fair use ("the nature and purpose of the excerpt," "the quantity and value of the portion used," and "the degree to which sales of the original work are impeded, profits are reduced, or the purpose is rendered meaningless"), and then generating incentives according to the amount of intellectual contribution. It is a mechanism that generates incentives to generate appropriate compensation between primary and secondary works. As a quantitative measure, the amount of net information in a compact space, such as entropy coding, and the amount of licensed use are emphasized. The former is a measure to evaluate new intellectual contributions with priority over existing similar works, and the latter is a measure to evaluate how many people have been intellectually influenced by the number of uses. The latter is a measure of how many people have been intellectually impacted by the number used. The latter is a scale to evaluate how many people have been intellectually impacted based on the number of neurons used. It can be said that this is a scale to measure the intellectual impact in terms of the number of neurons of human beings worldwide. Translating economic value into guidelines for such a measure of social impact will help distribute incentives, improve the certainty of value assessment, and reduce entropy in the marketplace.
Fourth, I will explain the distribution of compensation according to accumulated intellectual contributions and the depreciation of the amount of contributions. Normally, intellectual assets depreciate rapidly after they reach the market. Also, many intellectual assets have a season, and it is better to use them in economic activities while they are still valuable. It can be thought that as the market value of the usage rights of stocked intellectual assets declines, it will become possible to earn compensation efficiently by operating those usage rights in economic activities. Then, by paying the money thus efficiently earned as compensation in proportion to the amount of use rights owned, and by decreasing the amount of use rights, it is thought that a situation in which useless use rights of intellectual assets are accumulated can be prevented. In Coop Lights, the right to use intellectual assets is also the amount of contribution. In Coop Lights, the right to use intellectual assets is also the amount of contribution, and the function of distributing compensation according to the accumulated intellectual contribution and depreciating the amount of contribution will enable appropriate management in the market.
In this paper, I explained the importance of reducing entropy as a means to achieve the following:
- 1) no waste of information,
- 2) no falsehood in information,
- 3) necessary information reaching the necessary people,
- 4) existence of a reliable place for sharing and exchanging necessary information, and
- 5) high value-added business based on the acquired information.